Purpose: This study reports on the development, validation and measurement invariance of the Multicultural Competency Scale (MCS) for preservice teachers.
Research Methods: Data from 640 pre-service teachers were collected for two studies. After data screening procedures 628 responses were left. The data were divided into two sets for exploratory factor (n1=314) and confirmatory factor analysis (n2=314) using a random split half method in SPSS.
Findings: According to the results of the exploratory factor analysis, a 14-item, three-factor solution came out: awareness, skill and knowledge. Awarenesssubscale aims to measure the teacher’s awareness of his or her own cultural affiliation. Knowledge subscale attempts to measure the teacher's willingness to learn about diverse cultures. Skill subscale intends to measures the teacher's competence to organize and adapt the educational environment and materials according to the multicultural class. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the three-factor oblique model was a good fit to the data. The subscales of the MCS demonstrated adequate internal consistency. Measurement invariance tests revealed that full configural, metric, scalar invariance and partial strict invariance were achieved across gender.
Implications forResearch and Practice: Validity and reliability analysis of the scale suggest that the MCS-14 has satisfactory psychometric features. Thus, the MCS can be utilized to diagnose pre-service teachers’ multicultural competency and to investigate changes in their strengths and weaknesses in multicultural competency during the training. The MCS enables preservice teachers to self-assess and to recognize their position of multicultural competence. The MCS also allows researchers to predict teachers’ future success in diverse classrooms.
multiculturalism, scale development, measurement invariance, partial strict invariance, gender