Attitudes toward Pirated Content: A Scale Development Study Based on Graded Response Model

1Pamukkale University, TURKEY
2Ankara University, TURKEY
DOI: 10.14689/ejer.2021.91.7

Purpose: The present study aims to develop a scale based on the Graded Response Model, one of the Item Response Theory models to determine university students’ attitudes towards pirated content. Most of the data collection tools on attitudes towards piracy and pirated content have not been developed as a scale, and an attitude scale towards pirated content based on Item Response Theory (IRT) does not exist in the literature.
Research Methods: In accordance with this purpose, the data collected from 438 university students studying at two public universities were used in this study. First, the estimation of the Item Response Theory was tested, and then item parameters were estimated according to the Graded Response Model by analyzing the item-model compatibility.
Findings: The findings obtained in this study showed that a 17-item Likert-type unidimensional scale was developed based on the Graded Response Model to determine the university students’ attitudes towards pirated content. Upon the analysis of the information function of the scale, the findings showed that the scale provided more information for individuals between trait levels -1.5 and 1.5 and that the scale provided a very reliable measurement for the individuals with trait levels -2 and 3. Moreover, the scale showed measurement invariance and DIF-free according to gender.
Implications for Research and Practice: Using this scale in further studies on pirated content, group-independent measurement results can be obtained. Furthermore, through studies, such as differential item functioning (DIF) and computerized adaptive testing (CAT), the practicality of the scale can be increased.
Keywords: Piracy, item response theory, polytomous models, validity.