Comparing Paper-Pencil and Computer-Based Tests: A Meta-Analysis Study in The Sample of Turkey

Nevşehir Hacı Bektaş Veli University, TURKEY.
DOI: 10.14689/ejer.2021.93.13


Purpose: With improvements in computer technologies and test implementations in the computer environment, when advantageous points of computer-based test implementations are considered, it is inevitable to compare psychometric characteristics of paper-and-pencil tests and computer-based tests and students’ success. In computer-based tests, individuals’ familiarity with computers and competency in using computers, conditions may show diversity depending on the country or region. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the effects of mean differences between PP and CBT using meta-analysis concerning the studies, including samples from Turkey and conducted between 1993 and 2020.

Research Methods: In this meta-analysis, 37 findings were included. Cohen’s d was used as the effect size. And also, in this study, concerning the equivalence of the PP and CBT forms, it was investigated whether mean effect sizes differ or not according to variables like type of computerized, education level, and subject matter. In this direction, ANOVA and Q values were used.

Findings: As a result of the meta-analysis conducted, the general effect size was 0.042. In this direction, it was found that the difference in test implementation methods (paper-and-pencil, computer-based) was negligible.

Implications for Research and Practice: Results suggest that CBT can be an acceptable alternative to traditional pencil and paper tests. In this way, results obtained are expected to lead to educational policies and measurement implementations in the future.

Keywords: Computer-based test, paper-pencil test, effect size, meta-analysis.