Motivation for Instrument Education: a Study from the Perspective of Expectancy-Value and Flow Theories

Sabahat BURAK
Dr. Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey.


Problem Statement: In the process of instrument education, students being unwilling (lacking motivation) to play an instrument or to practise is a problem that educators frequently face. Recognizing the factors motivating the students will yield useful results for instrument educators in terms of developing correct teaching methods and approaches. Factors motivating the students are addressed from the perspective of several motivational theories in the relevant literature.

Purpose of the Study: In this research, factors motivating students to play their instruments are explained in light of the perspectives of expectancyvalue and flow theories. Moreover, I tried to tie these factors to variables such as the school of the students, sex, etc.

Method: This study was performed at institutions providing professional music education in Antalya and Burdur, Turkey. The study group consisted of 190 students and data were collected by a questionnaire developed to determine the motivations of students from the perspectives of flow and expectancy-value theories. The questionnaires consisted of two parts. In the first part, the personal characteristics of the students (sex, age, school, grade, daily instrument practise duration, number of years of playing, pass mark of instrument class, etc.) were recorded. In the second part, questions were prepared to determine the motivation of students within the scope of expectancy-value and flow theories. While preparing the questions, four sub-aspects of the expectancy-value theory were taken into consideration. Descriptive statistical techniques were applied to determine the demographic characteristics of the participants. A chisquared test was conducted for two variables to determine whether the answers varied as according to sex, age, school, grade, daily instrument practise time, and number of years of playing.

Findings and Results: The questionnaire answers showed significant differences based on several personal characteristics of the students.

Conclusions and Recommendations: Instrument educators should observe of the abilities of their students to motivate them and increase their daily practise time and success. Educators should be careful about giving instructions in accordance with the levels of their students.

Keywords: Instrument education, motivation, expectancy-value, flow.