Direct and Indirect Effects of Learning Strategies and Reading Enjoyment on PISA 2009 Reading Performance

1Ankara University, Faculty of Educational Science, Ankara, Turkey.
2Pamukkale University, Faculty of Education, Denizli, Turkey.
3Kocaeli University, Faculty of Education, Kocaeli, Turkey,
DOI: 10.14689/ejer.2019.82.9


Purpose: The aim of the study was to investigate the extent students’ learning strategies and reading enjoyment variables predicted PISA 2009 reading achievement, and to examine whether reading enjoyment had a mediator effect in the relationship between reading achievement and learning strategies.

Methods: In this correlational study, Turkey PISA 2009 reading comprehension cognitive test and student questionnaires were used for data collection. Learning strategies and reading pleasure which was related to students’ reading comprehension achievement were identified as predictive variables and index values of these variables were used. The data were analysed using hierarchical linear models (HLM).

Findings: The results of the HLM analysis showed that the students who used control strategies more frequently had higher reading scores. Memorization was negatively associated with reading literacy and the elaboration strategies had no effect on achievement. Reading enjoyment was identified as a variable that improved students’ reading performance. It was found out that control and elaboration strategies directly affected student’s reading enjoyment whereas memorisation did not have such a direct effect. The results related to the indirect effect between variables showed that reading enjoyment had a partial mediator effect for the control strategy and had a full mediating effect for elaboration.

Implications for Research and Practice: Teachers are encouraged to use deep learning strategies instead of surface learning strategies. Teachers can inform their students about what deep learning strategies are, why they are more effective than others, and how to use them. The think aloud technique can be used to show how this strategy can be used in daily life.

Keywords: Reading performance, learning strategies, reading enjoyment, direct-indirect effect, Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM).