Education Technology Standards Self-Efficacy (ETSSE) Scale: A Validity and Reliability Study0F

1Dr. Dicle University, Ziya Gokalp Faculty of Education.
2Asst. Prof. Dr., Dicle University, Ziya Gokalp Faculty of Education.
DOI: 10.14689/ejer.2016.63.18


Problem Statement: The educational technology standards for teachers set by the International Society for Technology in Education (the ISTE Standards-T) represent an important framework for using technology effectively in teaching and learning processes. These standards are widely used by universities, educational institutions, and schools. The contemporary ISTE standards for teachers proposed in 2008 have five dimensions. The standards created a vision for the educational technology field, so it is important that how prospective teachers or in-service teachers meet these standards is measured with valid and reliable instruments.

Purpose of the Study: The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the education technology standards self-efficacy (ETSSE) scale, which is based on the ISTE Standards-T.

Method: Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were conducted in order to determine the factor structure of the scale. The scale items were constructed based on the ISTE Standards-T and performance indicators. To define the content validity values of the scale items, the researchers asked the opinions of 12 specialists. The data was collected from prospective teachers (CFA1 group, n=473) and teachers (CFA2 group, n=394). Owing to the theoretical structure of the standards being defined by ISTE, both first order and second order confirmatory factor analyses were applied to the datasets of the two groups separately and without exploratory factor analysis.

Findings: The ETSSE scale was validated in five dimensions as ISTE Standards-T 2008 identified. According to the results of the first order and second order confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) of the two different groups, the scale is considered reliable (CFA1 1st order [χ2 (734, n= 473)= 1857.23, p< .001, RMSEA=.057, SRMR=.053, NFI= .95, NNFI=.97, CFI=.97, IFI=.97]; CFA2 1st order [χ2 (727, n= 394)= 1886.31, p< .001, RMSEA=.064, SRMR=.056, NFI = .95, NNFI=.97, CFI=.97, IFI=.97]). Concurrent validity results showed a positive and significant correlation between the two scales .83 (p<.01). Cronbach’s Alpha was at .95 and McDonald’s Omega was .96. The item analyses showed that each item correlated with the overall score from the scale both for prospective teachers and teachers (Corrected Item-Total Correlation >.30). Independent group t-tests for the 27% upper and 27% lower groups in the five sub-factors showed significant difference (p<.01).

Conclusion and Recommendations: The research results have demonstrated that the developed ETSSE scale consisting of 40 items and five subscales is valid and reliable for both teachers and prospective teachers.

Keywords: Education technology standards, ISTE standards, scale development, confirmatory factor analysis.